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TRADITIONAL USES of ADHATODA VASICA, ARADUSO

Yesenia Harris

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Manish Kumar1, Vikram S. Chauhan2, Raaz K Maheshwari3*
1 Department of Zoology, Narain College, Shikohabad, UP
2 Department of Botany, Bangur Govt PG College, Pali, Rajasthan
3 Department of Chemistry, SBRM Govt PG College, Nagaur, Rajasthan

*gcacs60@gmail.com

Adhatoda vasica is popularly known as Basak in Bangla, Malabar Nut in English, Adosa (ARADUSO) in Hindi and Vasaka in Sanskrit. It has been used in preparation of herbal medicines for the past 2000 years.

This evergreen perennial shrub has leathery leaves. The flowers are dense and large having large bracts and whitish pink/purple colored. The herb is often grown as a hedge and its leaves and twigs are utilized as green-manure. The whole plant or its roots, leaves, bark and flowers are used in various herbal preparations.

It is a primary medicinal plant for the respiratory tract ailments in the treatment of cough, bronchitis, asthma and symptoms of common cold. The medicinal uses of Adulsa leaves are attributed to its antitussive, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. Its leaf juice is the most common home remedy for cough, respiratory diseases and bleeding disorders. It is also a highly effective natural medicine for respiratory infections. In ayurveda, Adulsa juice is also called Adusa Swarasa, Adulsa Swarasa and Vasa Svarasa.

Constituents of the plant have been exposed to have anti stress effects, which might be occasioned partly by an endocrine and partly by an immunomodulatory mechanism of action. This plant has medicinal uses, mainly antispasmodic, fever reducer, anti-inflammatory, anti-bleeding, bronchodilator, anti-diabetic, disinfectant, anti-jaundice and oxytocic. It is antiperiodic, astringent, diuretic, purgative and is also used as an expectorant in addition to liquefy sputum. The leaves, flowers and roots of this plant used in herbal drugs against tubercular activities cancer and possessed anti-helminthic properties.

A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant having activities like antitussive, abortifacient, antimicrobial, insecticidal, hepatic protection, cardiovascular protection, anticholinesterase, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and other important activities. Some important bioactive compounds have been reported in various part of Adhatoda vasica are essential oils and quinazoline alkaloids. So this plant can form one of the best options for developing novel compounds having medicinal value.

The chemical compounds found in Adhatoda vasica plant includes essential oils, fats, resins, sugar, gum, amino acids, proteins and vitamins ‘C’ etc. The phytochemical analysis show that phenols, tannins, alkaloids, anthraquinone, saponins, flavonoids and reducing sugars were found in the leaves of plant. But the pharmacologically most studied chemical component in plant is vasicine, a bitter quinazoline alkaloid, the novel alkaloid isolated leaves and characterized as 1, 2, 3, 9-tetrahydro- 5-methoxypyrrol [2, 1-b] quinazolin-3-ol. It is present in the leaves, roots and flowers. Besides vasicine, the leaves contain several alkaloids (Vasicinone, Vasicinol, Adhatodine, Adhatonine, Adhvasinone, Anisotine and Hydroxypeganine), betaine, steroids and alkanes . The leaves contain two major alkaloids called vasicine and vasicinone.

Glycodin Terp, which is a famous product used for the cure of bronchitis has been a product extracted from the leaves of Adhatoda vasica. Further, the extracts have been found to be quite effective against tuberculosis. Various parts of the plant have been used in Indian traditional medicine for the treatment of asthma, joint pain, lumber pain, sprains, cold, cough, eczema, malaria, rheumatism, swelling and venereal diseases.

In India paste of the fresh root applied on abdomen and vagina minutes before childbirth facilitates easy delivery. The extract of roots of Adhatoda vasica has commonly been used by rural population against diabetes, cough and certain liver disorders . whereas its paste has been used for curing tuberculosis, diphtheria, malarial fever, leucorrhoea, eye diseases, acute nightfall [(paste mixed with sugar) in Sitapur district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Further, the root’s decoction has been used for gonorrhoea and as an expectorant, antispasmodial / anthelmintic agent.

The various preparations of leaves has been used for curing bleeding, hemorrhage, skin diseases, wounds, headache and leprosy (chronic infection) while their infusion or the solvent extract has been observed to be an excellent agent for the destruction of white ants, flies, and mosquitoes.

The fresh juice of leaves mixed with honey and ginger juice cures all types of acute cough, chronic bronchitis, breathlessness and liquefies sputum and asthma . The extract obtained by decoction of its leaves along with fruit of Phyllanthus emblica, mixed with honey has been effective against asthma.

The crushed fresh leaves of the plant have been used to treat snake bites (India and Sri lanka). Macerated extract from leaves/ Yellow leaves/smoke from dry leaves acts against cough and phlegm blockage during cold (Bangladesh) and an infusion protects from headache (Myanmar and Pakistan).

The leaf powder boiled in sesame oil stops bleeding, earaches as well as pus from ears and jaundice. Leaf juice has been used as the best medicine to enhance platelet count during dengue like viral fevers, postpartum hemorrhage, urinary trouble, acidity and belching and its mixture with jaggery reduces excessive menstrual flow get cured. Externally warmed leaves have been used for rheumatic pains and dislocation of joint, stomach catarrh with constipation, rheumatism, gout, fever and urinary stone. Juice made from the bark and leaves help against vomiting.

The flowers have been known to possess expectorant and antiasthmatic, antiseptic properties and have been used against of ophthalmic, cold, phthisis, asthma, bronchitis, cough, antispasmodic, high fever and gonorrhoea. Also the flowers improve blood circulation and hectic heet of blood . Fruits: Fruits of the Adhatoda vasica are four seeded capsules. In Pakistan, fruits of the plant are used for cold, antispasmodic and bronchitis. The fruit of the plant are also used for Diarrhea, Dysentery, Fever and as laxative.

A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant having activities like antitussive, abortifacient, antimicrobial, insecticidal, hepatic protection, cardiovascular protection, anticholinesterase, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and other important activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant having activities like antitussive, abortifacient, antimicrobial, insecticidal, hepatic protection, cardiovascular protection, anticholinesterase, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and other important activities A. vasica has emerged as imperative medicinal herb well known for its applications in different traditional medicinal system such as Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani etc.

References

o Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu S 2008. Medicinal uses and pharmacological Actions of five commonly used Indian Medicinal plants: A mini-review. Iranian J. Pharm. Therapeut., 7: 107-114.

o Bhaduri B, Ghose CR, Bose AN, Moza BK, Basu UP, 1968. Antifertility activity of some medicinal plants. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 6: 252-253.

o Karthikeyan A, Shanthi V, Nagasathya A, 2009. Preliminary Phytochemical and antibacterial screening of crude extract of the leaf of Adhatoda vasica (L). Int. J. Green Pharm., 3: 78-80.

o Kumar M., Dandapat S., Kumar A. and Sinha M.P. 2013. Antityphoid activity of Adhatoda vasica and Vitexnegund. Persian Gulf Crop Protection, 2(3): 64-75.

o Lahiri PK, Prahdan SN 1964. Pharmacological investigation of Vasicinol- an alkaloid from Adhatoda vasica Nees. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 2: 219-223.

o Atal, C.K. 1980. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Vasicine – A new oxytocic and abortifacient, Indian Drugs, 15(2), 15-18.

o Sayeed, A., Madhukar, G., Maksood, A., Mhaveer, S., Md. Tanwir, A. and Shahid, H.A. 2009. A Phyto- pharmacological overview on Adhatoda zeylanica Medic. Syn. A. vasica(Linn.) Nees. Natural Product Radiance, 8(5): 549-554.

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Rice Ferment Filtrate in Cosmetics

Yesenia Harris

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Vinay Kumar Singh.

Head-Formulation

Kumar Organic Products Research Centre Pvt. Ltd., Bengaluru

Rice water is nothing but cloudy-milky water that you throw away after soaking the rice for a few hours or boiling them. You would be surprised to know that rice water contains a lot of minerals and vitamins like amino acids and vitamin B6, which might benefit your skin and hair by increasing shininess, enhancing softness, strengthening the hair while protecting against the various damages to your skin & health goes through.

Rice is part of India’s beauty legacy, which contains ferulic acid, a powerful antioxidant, and allantoins, anti-inflammatory properties. So, whether you eat rice or not, use it in your face pack for glowing skin. The starch in rice water soothes the skin in conditions like eczema.

Rice water has been used in Asian beauty rituals for centuries to achieve glowing and smooth skin. Using rice water for the skin is a natural home remedy in treating and preventing acne, removing acne scars, and getting rid of hyperpigmentation.

Rice water contains amino acids, vitamins B and E, and minerals that promote cell growth, stimulate blood flow and keep the skin smooth, youthful, and bright in chilly weather conditions. It’s a beauty booster used by more and more people worldwide.

Rice is, of course, delicious as one of the vital culinary ingredients worldwide, so we all know how to make it, but when we are using it for beauty purposes, it’s a different process, very simple, by the way.

A Chinese Village in Huangluo was named as the ‘Long Haired Village’. This is because the Yao women out there have the most beautiful, shiny and long hair. And guess the length of their hair? The majority of the women have hair longer than 1.4 meters, and they even made a place in the Guinness Book of World Records as the “world’s longest hair village”.

Yao women have a belief that long hair signifies prosperity, good fortune, longevity, etc. Thus their long hair is undoubtedly their prized possession! Also, they do not have grey hair till their late 80s.

The Yao women believe that the fermented rice water, which they use to cleanse their hair, is what helps to keeps their hair long, dark and clean.

Furthermore, female rice farmers in China, Japan, and other Southeast Asian countries used to bathe and wash, in the water used for cleaning rice. Rice water is the secret recipe of flawless-skinned Japanese geishas for centuries.

In Korean cuisine, rice water has been used for a long time to cook dishes like stews. They also use rice water for braising fish or to wash it, which further takes away all the smell of the fish. Korean people also use rice water for deodorizing their plastic containers. You will be surprised to know that it can also be used for cleaning dishes and as a natural fertilizer for plants as it’s loaded with minerals and vitamins.
Benefits of Rice water for hair and skin

1. Promotes hair growth

The fascinating length of the Yao women proves that rice water inevitably has a significant role in the hair growth. This magical potion is rich in Amino Acids, Vitamin B, Vitamin C and Vitamin E, which encourages hair growth to a great extent. The Amino Acids are an excellent ingredient for hair growth. It boosts

protein and keratin production, which are the basic necessities for your hair. Vitamin B is significant to maintain your hair’s strength, and Vitamin C keeps the sebum production in check to an optimum mark. Vitamin E prevents hair loss and keeps your hair hydrated so that it doesn’t feel dry or dull.

2. Prevents Split Ends

The problem of Split ends is pretty common, and this is a real nuisance. The amount of effort and time invested in making your hair long gets wasted completely when you chop off your hair length to eliminate the split ends. This is simply heart breaking. Rice water is an excellent remedy to prevent split end.

3. Cures Dandruff

There is simply no individual on earth who hasn’t dealt with the struggle of dandruff. Rice water has been proven to help with dandruff by fighting the fungi, which causes dandruff and eliminates those dry white flakes to a large extent. It also helps maintain the pH level of your hair.

4. Gives damage protection

Styling tools are common in our everyday life. Perfect straight hair is one of the ongoing trends right now. Investing in a damage protectant or protectant serum is essential but can be costly. The carbohydrate present in the rice water is a great damage protectant. It can be used before applying any styling tools. It reduces the surface friction and also increases the elasticity of your hair. Thus, making it less prone to damage by those heating tools.

5. Has Inositol, a carbohydrate to help

A recent research showed that rice water exhibits hair care properties, such as decreasing surface friction and improving hair elasticity. Rice water has inositol, a carbohydrate that can repair damaged hair, as well as protect it from further damage. Specialized imaging technique shows that inositol stays inside the hair even after rinsing, offering continuing hair protection and beautifying effects. These remarkable benefits explain the 6 feet, healthy, long and beautiful hair of the Yao women.

6. Skin benefits.

Due to its cooling and soothing effects on skin, it is often prescribed as an effective ointment to cool off inflamed skin. Rice water also has moisturizing, antioxidant, and healing properties that help to improve circulation, prevent or fade age related spots, and ease inflammation to give you a healthy, better moisturized and clear skin. As long as it’s left on the skin, rice water is even believed to offer mild protection from the sun.

Rice water illuminates, firms, and tightens skin to create a porcelain finish. It reduces pore size, leaving a powdery, soft feeling behind. Rice water is also good for acne since it reduces redness and blemishes.

Black rice is indigenous to Northeast India, and is extensively grown in Odisha, West Bengal and Jharkhand. Commonly eaten in Manipur, the dish is called chak-hao, which translates to rice (chak) which is delicious (ahaoba). It’s a medium-grain rice that originated in China and other parts of Asia some 10,000 years ago.

Varieties of black rice is grown everywhere from Thailand and Indonesia to China, Japan, and India. This rice also grows in countries all across the world. Some varieties are short-grained, and some are long-grained. Long-grained rice is slightly healthier since it has less starch, giving it a lower glycemic index.

Kavuni Arisi (Black Rice): Almost unique to the Chettinad region in Tamil Nadu and evidence of the Chettiar community’s strong links with Burma, black rice is prevalent across South East Asian cultures and is a rich source of Iron and Vitamin E. The bran hull of black rice has one of the highest levels of anthocyanin antioxidants found in any food (even more than blueberries).

Black rice has a spectacularly high level of anthocyanin, which might be why it’s revered in, for example, China as an extremely healthy food as they help to protect your cells against damage. These pigments are also known for reducing inflammation and helping reduce the risk of cardiovascular conditions. Eating black rice can give you a worthwhile boost on your heart health and overall fitness.

It also is fairly tricky to grow, at least in terms of yield, which is often as low as 10 percent of other rice varieties. It’s occasionally called “emperor’s rice” or “forbidden rice” for that very reason but oral history suggests that only the richest of the rich were able to afford the delicacy. Chinese emperor to ensure his health and longevity, had forbidden it to all others. In fact, it has more fiber and protein than red, brown, or white rice.

Black rice also provides these health benefits :

Improved Eye Health: Along with protective anthocyanins, black rice contains high amounts of lutein and zeaxanthin, two carotenoids known for their role in supporting eye health. These antioxidants help to protect the cells in your eyes and to reduce the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

Diabetes Management: Flavonoids like anthocyanins also influence blood sugar levels and diabetes management. Phytochemicals have a positive influence on our body, improving insulin sensitivity. They also help by reducing sugar digestion in your small intestine, which lowers sugar levels in your blood.

Nutrition : Black rice is rich in amino acids, fatty acids, antioxidants, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and other phenolic compounds. There are 18 amino acids in black rice, with a mix of essential and non-essential types. Amino acids are crucial to many of your body’s functions, from helping repair skin and tissues to improving your energy levels and digestion.

At KOPL Biotech Centre, we explored The SCIENCE behind Rice Water. We believe in innovation so we have launched Kopryza- A black rice ferment filtrate.

The pH level of rice water is slightly harsh on our hair. However, Fermentation process reduces the pH level of rice water and equal to the pH level of the Hair, and nourishes it better due to the effective penetration of vitamins into the scalp and hair structure. Its purported benefits include “promotes hair growth, protects and repairs hair, increases shine and smoothness, detangles the hair, reducing hair fall and makes hair stronger”

Fermented rice water contains “Vitamins, proteins, minerals, keratin and antioxidants”. Once fermented, rice water nutrition is magnified, it is found to produce additional nutrients such as niacin and biotin, which are ingredients in most of the hair growth supplements. Fermented rice water has a natural carbohydrate called Inositol. Inositol penetrates and lingers in the hair shaft to provide repair and lasting protection.

Among the various rice varieties researched at our Biotech Centre, Black Rice was found to possess significantly higher levels of different carotenoids like ?-carotene, lutein and phenolics. It is rich in 18 amino acids, minerals and vitamins like Copper, Iron, Zinc. It is also reputed for having high anthocyanin content and hence, high antioxidant activity, which protects, the skin and hair from damages caused by free radicals.

KOPRYZA is the new hair care ingredient developed at KOPL Biotech Centre where all the benefits of Karuppu, Kavuni Rice are scientifically captured for the benefit of the hair & skin. They are highly recommended for all kinds of shampoos and conditioners and for all types of hair. The best thing is that the goodness imparted onto the hair stays even after multiple washes. The original goodness of black rice water further gets augmented by fermentation.

Inositol content of Kopryza was estimated by HPLC method as 48.45mg Inositol /100g

Bioactives(Peptide) in Kopryza: Oligopeptide is a small molecule of protein, which is also known as a peptide. Oligopeptide content of Kopryza is found to be 5.81 g/L. The molecular weight of this peptide is found to be 10 KDa.

Keeping in mind, the attribute it offers, we have developed many formula. One such formulation of 2 in 1 Conditioning Shampoo, as described below which will help repair hair damage. It will wash away hair woes with the natural goodness of Fermented Black Rice Water and put a full stop to deteriorating hair quality.It improves hair texture by adding elasticity, increasing volume, and giving it a healthier appearance, while also shielding it from further damage being rich in vitamins and minerals.

FORMULATION

2 in 1 Conditioning Shampoo

This Shampoo tends to clean the hair by removing dead cells and sebum from scalp. Kopryza present in the shampoo conditions, helps in detangling the hair & making them smooth and shiny.

Phase

Sr.No

Ingredient/INCI

Wt.%

Trade name /supplier

Uses

A

1

Aqua

QS to 100

In-house

Solvent

2

Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrylate Cross polymer

0.3

Lubrizol

Rheology modifier

3

Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate

45

Godrej

Surfactant

4

Guar Hydroxy Propyl Trimonium chloride (GHPTC)

0.3

Akzo nobel

Rheology modifier

5

Dimethicone

0.75

Dow corning

Conditioning & Shining agent

6

Disodium EDTA

0.1

S.D.Fine

Chelating agent

7

Cocoamidopropyl Betaine

6

Delta Green

Surfactant

B

8

Cetyl Alcohol

0.6

S D Fine

Emulsifier

9

Cocomonoethanol amine

2

Otto Chemicals

Foaming agent

10

Ethylene Glycol Distearate

0.3

Croda

Pearlizing agents

C

11

Polyquaternium 44

1

Delta Green Science

Conditioning agent

12

Rice ferment Filtrate

2

Kopryza/ KRC

Conditioning agent

13

D Panthenol

0.6

Delta Green Science

Conditioning agent

D

14

Green Infusion

0.5

Ultra International

Perfume

15

Triethyl citrate, Benzoic acid, Caprylyl glycol

1

KOPTBC/ KRC

Preservative

E

16

pH adjuster (18% NaOH)

~0.5*

S.D Fine

pH Adjuster

*pH range- 6.0-7.0

Procedure :

1. Weigh phase A & phase B ingredients separately and heat to 70-80?C.

2. Add phase B at 75?C to Phase A at 75?C slowly under stirring, maintain temperature of 75?C for 5-10mints.

3. Add phase C to phase AB at 45?C.

4. Add phase D at Room temperature (RT) to phase ABC at 35-40?C under mixing. Mix it well and allow to cool to RT.

5. Adjust pH with phase E and fill the product in suitable container.

Product Specification :

Parameter

Specification

Results

Appearance

White/off white Viscous liquid

Off White viscous liquid

Odour

Characteristic

Characteristic

pH

4.0-9.0

6.01

Viscosity*

Min.3000cps

4500cps

*Note: Viscosity determined by using Brookfield viscometer, Model LVDV II+PRO,

Spindle no: S6.3 @ 50RPM, 26?C

Ref : FD/AT/10/023A

Stability: Passes 12weeks at 45?C and passes 3 freeze/thaw cycles

Conclusion: Product was observed to be stable without any colour change or separation. Thus it was found to be stable.

KOPL Products :

Kopryza : Rice ferment filtrate Obtained by fermentation of Black Kavuni, Rice a rare variety of rice from south India using Bacillus bacteria, Suitable in skin care & hair care products

KOPTBC : This is a preservative blend of Caprylyl glycol, Triethyl citrate, Benzoic acid which is used in skin care, hair care Color cosmetics products.

Directions for Use :

Wet hair thoroughly with warm water. Take shampoo in your hand and rub it to generate foam. Apply on your scalp and hair length. Massage the shampoo into your scalp for 2-3 minutes. Rinse your hair with plenty of water. Use conditioner for better result

Fermented Black Rice Filtrate has lingering effective conditioning effect for hair and soothing & moisturizing effect on skin, making it useful for Hair care, Skin care & Colour cosmetics alike and truly Rice water just might be Asia’s best kept beauty secret, which is also confirmed by The Health Science Journal.

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Pharma

Inauguration of Pharmacy Council of India: First Step in Implementation of Pharmacy Act, 1948

Yesenia Harris

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Inauguration of Pharmacy Council of India: First step in Implementation of Pharmacy Act, 1948

About Authors
Dr. R. S. Thakur
Chief Editor, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru-560035.
Email: drramsthakur@gmail.com

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